Interior and Furniture Blog. Ideas and Trends

Lamps and Light

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Lighting ofpremises

Interior lighting in buildings is regulated in the construction and sanitary standards . Of course, the vast majority of the population “not to bother” complex calculations and sets the lights at home, based on their own artistic taste, that is, the shape of the lamp and not the lighting characteristics.

Below we will try to give a relatively simple information that will allow you to provide the necessary lighting and a variety interior design.

Selecting wattage

The packaging of each lamp should indicate its luminous flux, measured in lumens. Light from the sun or lamps distributed throughout the area, creates a light, measured in lux. In general terms the illumination light flux is divided by the area illuminated, but the light is distributed over the area is not evenly in real life.

Regulatory illumination depends on the functional purpose of the premises and the intensity of the visual load, for example:

  • Living rooms – 75 deluxe
  • Kitchen – Suite 100
  • Room to Read – 300 lux
  • Place for homework students – 500 lux.

You can use the following table to the preliminary estimations the necessary wattage:

Total power of incandescent lamps needed for good lighting of all items W

Room area, m² A room with a white ceiling
and walls, without furniture
along walls (white)
A room with a white ceiling
and light colored walls,
crowded with bright furniture

(Bright)

A room with a dark color of the walls, crowded with dark
furnishings (dark)

10

80

160

200

15

120

200

260

20

160

240

320

The following table matches any single lamp power as smaller specific light output of low-power incandescent lamps (lumens / watt), offset by a better light distribution.

For fluorescent lamps need to consider a reduction factor to the capacity specified in the table. Do not find a single compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), the packaging of which the manufacturer can not be placed the inscription type 11W = 60W. It is necessary to take into account the actual quality of lamps, reducing the luminous flux during the operation (safety factor of 1.1-1.3), losses in low-quality electronic ballasts , high light standards for fluorescent lamps (correction factor of 1.1-1.3). The real need derating factor for the “cold” light (> 4000K), better to take about 3, but for the “warm” (<3500K) of about 2.5. For high coefficient of lamps can be increased to 4, and for modern linear 5. For halogen lamps derating factor may be taken equal to approximately 1.2.

In an era of deficit we have formed light behavior, which amounts to a simple formula – must be light. All lamps are usually placed on the ceiling or around it and incorporated in one or two ways. In fact, the more lamps in a room, the better. They will not be turned on all at once. Even in a large room can often create light fixtures needed for a small space. Paradoxically, a large number of lamps results in energy savings – we automatically wonder what should be included.

Another issue is that there is no need to duplicate the different luminaire groups are the same function. In the era of drywall became fashionable multi-level ceilings, and many of them are placed in a huge number of lamps. Despite the ability to selectively turn on, they usually perform the same task – to provide general room lighting. That is, it does not include (a chandelier, a highly placed sconces, chain or checkerboards ceiling lights), interior space is not changed, so what is the point of such excesses?

The form of the luminaire, according to simple principles of common sense, tells us that he will shine the most. Strictly speaking, we do not see the objects themselves, and the light reflected from them. On the subject of light can enter indirectly, after bouncing off the walls or ceiling with corresponding losses proportional to their reflection coefficient : Material% Dark Wallpaper 6 Window glass 8 Wallpaper light 50 White Paper 60-80 Enamel white 65 Chalk, gypsum, lime 85

Each fixture also has a coefficient of performance (COP), it is always less than unity. In the application of the most common protective glasses polycarbonate illumination losses amount to 10-15%. The “dark” lamps loss can be more than 50%. Lamp efficiency also depends on the angle of light emission than it already is, the lower the efficiency. Losses in reflectors (starting with conical lampshade table lamp from the inside painted in white light) can usually be neglected, as they are offset by a good directional light. The correct illumination of the reflector significantly increases the selected area.

Fixtures scattered light (light emitted in all directions) have the highest efficiency and is suitable for general lighting. The reflection of light off the walls, ceiling and floor of the light creates a sense of comfort when the general perception of the room as the saturated light without glare. However, it is necessary to put much more powerful lamp, that is, in this case it is better to organize additional local lighting at the dark colors of the walls and furniture.

Room Dimensions

When the brightness of the reflected light from the floor, walls and ceiling, changing human perception size of the room. The dark ceiling seem lower, and bright – high. Bright floor conversely “reduces” the height of the room. A low ceiling can be used as a reflector, directing him to a substantial portion of the light fixtures. With high ceilings, light fixtures are better placed significantly lower on the walls or long suspensions.

The colors of warm colors (yellow, red) bring objects and walls seem closer. Cool colors (white, blue, purple) in the color of the walls, on the contrary widen the space. In small rooms with relatively high ceilings, for “razdvizhki walls”, it is necessary to increase their coverage and apply light wallpaper or paint.Extend the space will also help to highlight certain interior. Light at the end of a narrow wall space visually makes it much wider. A narrow room with a wide window and a glassed-in balcony door, the day does not seem so narrow. In the evening it is possible to use a dense, but very light curtains and even further direct them part of the world.

Removing walls in the narrow corridor can be arranged as a continuous glowing screen or illuminate the artistic composition with prevailing bright colors. “Advanced” narrow space also contributes to the displacement of the ceiling lamps from the mean line to one of the long walls, or even placed on it. Large or long room can be divided into functional areas, not only partitions, but also organizing local coverage. The rooms area of 20 m² is not desirable to use only one lamp, as this leads to a decrease in the visual space.

Light and color

Without light all black, gray in the dim light. The color we see through the reflected light. In a different light, we can see different shades of the same subject. These are the jewelers, the most illuminating counters and showing the stones under the additional lighting, or the owners of supermarkets, applying to meat and sausage shelves special “meat” lamps, which give a fresh new look stale products.

When different lighting changes the color of objects. Even the natural light changes significantly during the day, but the most serious contrast there is between the natural and artificial light. Selected in daylight blue tone with an electric can acquire a greenish hue; red – yellow; cream – gray. If in the incident white light is poorly represented what that part of the spectrum (for example, the light from the low-quality compact fluorescent lamps), it will not be enough, and in reflection, that is, we will see changes in the color of the subject.

Incandescent lamps sharpen color. They enhance the warm colors and reduce the effects of cold. The human eye is better to determine the contours of the warm colors of objects and worse cold – green, blue, cyan, last even referred to as “soft.” Subjects of an interior wall or cool colors under incandescent lighting often look ugly. Fluorescent lamps with a color temperature > 4000K enhance the sensation of cold from the cold tones and cool warm colors. Green and blue colors more vivid, and the red, orange and yellow fade. Less likely change under different lighting white and light colors. At the same time, we must remember that the light is well reflected by light walls and ceilings, in accordance with their color tones affect the perception of color furniture and other interior items. Also furniture and affects the perception of the color of the walls. Accordingly, the color palette of the room depends on what kind of lighting you use – intensive general, or dispersed across local areas.

The higher the gloss paint or varnish, the stronger the reflection of light and the brighter the color. On the bright background of the subject appears darker, a dark lighter. With uniform illumination in the room, warm colors are perceived brighter than cold. We must also bear in mind that with age is changing the bandwidth of the lens, it was significantly reduced in the cold part of the spectrum.

Light & Interior

In every apartment regularly want to change something. Repair or change the furniture is expensive.Rearrange if and helps for a short while. After spending most of his life under artificial light, we do not even think how fantastic tool for instant interior changes may be ordinary lights.

Modern lamps and fixtures allow for harmony and a variety of interior. By providing diffused or indirect lighting, appropriate premises intended purpose, it is possible to diversify its bright rays narrowly focused lamps, artistic lighting and lighting panels. The lighting can not only adjust the geometry of space, highlight areas and details of the interior, but also to hide the fact that it is desirable to leave in the shade, such as a cabinet or desktop that due to lack of space had to be placed in this room. The brighter highlights one area of the room, the more it seems shaded another.

Light even visible form of objects can be changed. Relief elements of the interior is perceived differently in the redistribution of light and shadow. If the volume object to illuminate evenly, it may seem flat. You can create raised walls and ceilings, but if you do not emphasize their light, artistic effect may not be achieved.On the other hand, if a smooth surface is illuminated evenly, its parts are perceived as different levels.Experimenting with shadows can widely change the dynamics of the space.

Remember the art lighting, transforming the urban landscape beyond recognition, or light festivals periodically arrange in major cities around the world. Using possibilities of lighting design, create opportunities for yourself home holiday.

Living room

Many events take place in this room, and its main purpose often can not be determined, as well as impossible to provide adequate lighting one mnogorozhkovoy chandelier. Most designers offer a highlight in a large room and functional areas to consider for each its coverage. The problem is that in our living rooms usually only one functional area – a sofa. Sitting or lying down on it, we watch TV (light general lighting), play cards (the circle of light around a coffee table), read magazines (good illumination light local pages), sleep alone or be laid reviews (lamp), etc. Hung with a sofa set of fixtures is probably not the best solution. Often you can get a floor lamp with a comfortable multifunctional brightness adjustment.

The functions performed in the room, it is advisable to fix in writing and identify types of accommodation people. Next determined by common sense and standard rules required lighting, and on the basis of the illuminated area, pretending to be the required power light and color temperature. The rest is mainly a matter of personal taste and design finds.

In the model homes, living very rarely has a square shape and light, you can adjust the usual rectangle. Modern miniature lamps make it possible to highlight all that is hanging on the walls, until each photo, changing them on different days or selectively lighting up the mood. The living room is used as a space for receiving a large number of guests. Lighting festive table – an important function, because we eat in such cases mainly eyes. As the celebration, in the transition to a friendly conversation, the illumination is better to reduce, especially if the picture becomes unsightly.Warm light also reduces aggressiveness. Accordingly, it is important the ability to control the total amount of lighting fixtures, lamps, or brightness level.

Overall high brightness lighting should not be achieved by direct flow of light. Direct light is too rigid and does not promote the creation of a warm atmosphere in the living room. Better to use the reflection of light off the walls and ceiling and in luminaires use matte lamps. Direct light is good only for large rooms.

Diffuse general lighting can be various unusual lamps:

  •  as a white frosted globe;
  •  located at the ends of the suspended structures of the ceiling and illuminated along it;
  •  located on the perimeter of the room, open or hidden for special projections, with the light directed at the ceiling;
  •  a high floor lamps with directional light up;
  •  ceiling, illuminating the walls;
  •  floor, illuminating the wall directed beams;
  •  illuminated sections of the floor, etc.

If your living room a lot of plants and natural light is not enough, you must apply the local lighting fluorescent lamps, which give greater UV radiation. When illuminated only incandescent plants stretch out and wither.

Bedroom

As a premise, a bedroom is, of course, sleep. But when the lights, it is increasingly used as a dressing room and a place where women prefer to make themselves beautiful. Accordingly, in a bedroom to be three types of lighting:

  •  Local, to prepare for bed,
  •  Overall, dressing and cleaning,
  •  Local, at the dressing table.

It is also possible all kinds of artistic lighting, such as the night sky.

For each type of lighting needed their switches, and for the first two of their better positioned at the entrance, below the night, dubbed by the bed, and on top of the total. Type of floor lamps and night-light is determined by only one factor – whether you’re reading in bed. If yes, then you need to provide sufficient illumination. Otherwise, the task of a lamp – to show where the bed and the free space on it, at evening and night movements.

In the bedroom it is desirable to have a diffused general lighting, so when you turn on the morning light does not fall directly into the eye, and a pre-from something reflected. This is achieved caps shades and shades of frosted glass or tissue, or the reflection of light off the walls and ceiling. Open-source direct light and create shadows, respectively, in the image of the wardrobe mirror can be uncomfortable. Ideal for the bedroom light is considered to be uniformly flowing from the ceiling. Lighting at the dressing table, for the absence of shadows on the face, to organize better from several sources, such as arranged around the mirror. Very useful to use small lights inside the wardrobe.

Kids room

In the children’s better not to experiment, and only use incandescent (including halogen).

As the top of the light source can be used by ordinary chandelier with incandescent frosted glass. Excess of crystal and glass ornaments are undesirable – they create additional glare. Good effect gives also organized on the perimeter of the room illuminated by built-in omni-directional halogen lights with bright, but not blinding light. Better yet, arrange a soft diffused light reflected from the ceiling. Poor vision affects the child a sharp contrast between the brightly lit surface of the desk and the rest, poorly lit part of the room. The lessons are designed to do, without turning off the overhead light, desk lamp with a capacity of 40-60 watts in the left front corner of the table. May be useful and transformable floor lamps.

If the child is very small, it is desirable not to use bright light. Many children do not like to sleep in the dark, they pick a favorite nightlight.

Hallway

Entrance is on the one hand – a dressing room, the other – the beginning of the house, the transition from the public in individual space. Daylight it is most often absent, and its artificial lighting brightness should correspond to the adjacent room lit by the sun, that is, to be quite intense.

The dim hallway lighting is a common mistake. At the same time it is desirable that the light was soft and pouring from different sides. The luminaires can be installed on the ceiling, on the floor, on the walls, above the mirror, that is to say almost everywhere. Possibility of partial inclusion of fixtures allows equal coverage in the hallway and nearby rooms. If the hall is used for the transition from room to room, it is necessary to provide additional lighting, lighting in the main place of transition. When correcting long, narrow hallway is usually used illumination of walls. A large amount of light reflected from the top of the walls, and partly from the ceiling pushes the space.

Lamps with pointing downwards beam of direct light, are contraindicated for vestibules. But bras are suitable both at low and at high ceilings. Also good lighting, windows, built-in wall. Place for placing clothes require special working lights. The mirror in the hall must be large, but it makes sense if the area in front of the mirror correctly, without shadows, illuminated. Best of all lamps in the mirror placed at a height of two meters above the floor. It is important that the luminous flux not intersect with the eye of the beholder in the mirror.

Kitchen-dining room

The main purpose of the kitchen – cooking, and most complex operation – finely chopped products without damaging fingers.

The kitchen should be relatively uniform general lighting, as required illumination of objects, and the need for shadow areas is missing. It can be organized as a single overhead lamp, right will be somewhat boring, and any set of spotlights, turning lamps on brackets, fixtures, ceiling covering, etc. You can do without general lighting, but the number of downlights in this case should be large enough. It is necessary and functional lighting. Local desktop lighting is better to have a hinged lockers, not over them. Well suited elongated fluorescent lamps, and spotlights are not, as they provide a more uniform illumination, besides the light from halogen lamps, bred at low altitude, can be reflected from the surface of the desktop and create glare.

The dining table can illuminate one or two lamps, located on the adjacent wall, or a chandelier-plate with an adjustable suspension height. The main thing that the table surface is well lit, it creates a mood, an appropriate meal, because for many people is not so much the taste of food, as its look. Lamp raised during breakfast allows you to tune in a working mood, and lowered down creates a home environment and calms. If you want to lose weight, it is better to use a lower power lamps or lamps with adjustable brightness. Interior lighting of cabinets with glass doors visually expands the kitchen.

Interesting turning lights on conducting tire. Moving them and changing the angle of inclination can easily introduce elements of novelty in the familiar interior. The light should not distort the natural colors of the products, so colored ceiling in the kitchen is not very good.

Bathroom

That Bathrooms in the last 20 years has changed in our apartments beyond recognition. But the bathroom has remained the most dangerous room in the apartment:

  •  hot water,
  •  high humidity,
  •  wet floor,
  •  bare feet,
  •  electric hair dryer or tongs in hand,
  •  the ability to be cut,
  •  Morning inattention.

Definitely, a bathroom should be well illuminated.

It should also be borne in mind that it is easier to go to the bathroom on the color contrasts and good light allows them to stress. It is important to the combination of fixtures with the interior of a small room, especially with the design of sanitary devices. If the bathroom all shining lights have to be discreet or hidden, and when the interior looks decent, lamps can be used as a bright decorative element. The bathroom should be observed electrical requirements. Lamps must be protected from direct exposure to moisture, and the use of compact fluorescent lamps in the bathroom at all is unacceptable (in addition to their frequent inclusion of undesirable). The passport lamp must be stated that it is designed for use in rooms with high humidity. Some fixtures require that the design of grounding.

Special mention should be pay attention to the lighting of the space in front of the mirror. For uniform illumination, without chiaroscuro transitions, you can use twin lamps on both sides of the mirror, or an elongated horizontal one. The light from them should not distort the image, hit in the eye or dazzle.Therefore ceiling should be white and scattering.

Going to the store for lamps

The current practice behavior “you only buy the chandelier,” leads to the fact that the lights are purchased when the interior of the room has already been formed. Worst of all, begin to think seriously – what lights you need directly in the store. It is better to do at home, personally reviewing your space and plan for the future situation.

The basic principle – that, what kind of light will emit light, it is much more important than its form and color. After determining the type of the necessary fixtures, their capacity, and the type and number of lamps in each, you can make yourself a cheat sheet and shop from a huge variety of relatively quickly choose suitable for you.

It should be borne in mind that practically no light fixtures suitable for different types of lamps. When you shop show chandelier with incandescent and say that it can be used with energy-saving lamps, do not believe, it usually just means that these lamps can be screwed into it. Most carob chandeliers when using compact fluorescent lamps do not provide adequate cooling of electronic ballasts, and, due to the greater length of the lamp, it stands for the edge of the ceiling, which is unacceptable because of the glare and reflections.

The spatial distribution of light from incandescent lamps and CFL fundamentally different. Incandescent lamp shines predominantly along the lamp axis, perpendicular to a CFL, i.e. sideways. Accordingly, the illumination from the same lamp for different types of bulbs will be fundamentally different. It is also important to find out the maximum wattage that can be used in specific luminaires. you can not use light bulbs of over 60 watts When using plastic bullets.